Welcome to tau.guide's quick introductory resources. Intended to help you learn more about the Tau-chain project.
This page is mostly non-technical. For a more granular look at the Tau-chain framework, head to our Tau-chain Tutorials
Ohad Asor (Founder & CTO)
By Rok Sivante
By Kevin Wong
by Isar Flis
by trafalgar (Miau Miau)
By Rok Sivante
by Isar Flis
Don't see your Question? Ask it here and have it answered on the next monthly development video update.
Tau plans to be a system for large-scale collaboration about virtually anything, but especially, about itself. Tau is a software effectively defined by its users. Users say, using formal languages, what they want the system to be like, and the system auto-updates itself according to the users’ consensus.
For this to work, several fundamental problems have to be solved. For example: how can a large group of people (say millions) have a meaningful discussion? How can a large group of people take a collaborative decision? Voting, for example, cannot scale and stay fair at the same time, because even if everyone got an equal right to vote, they still don’t have an equal right to propose what to vote over, because even if they had, who is going to even read a million proposals a day?
This is all solved under the assumption that users use formal languages, and, together with our large-scale communication paradigm which we call human-machine-human communication.
It will allow for on-the-fly logical consensus detection which enables it to scale some of the largest bottlenecks in human discussion. Advancements of which include social governance and knowledge creation.
By using a self defining and decidable logical framework, Tau is the first in this space to be able to logically deduce valuable knowledge over a network secured with blockchain technology by gathering data voluntarily submitted by its users.
What this means is that in effect, we can scale collaborative endeavors between thousands of mathematicians, doctors, computer scientists, engineers and other experts to greatly accelerate the production of knowledge.
Tau aims to become an indispensable technology. Once Tau has launched, any company, nation or organisation not using the collaborative power of the network will likely be at a disadvantage.
Please refer to our guide and the project's Whitepaper for a more in depth view of Tau-chain and Agoras.
Tau is independent itself and has no tokens. However, Ohad is also building Agoras using tau tech, it will be the first automated marketplace over the Tau collaborative platform.
It has one of the fairest distributions in the cryptosphere. Ohad is only reserving 3% of the tokens for himself.
Agoras will be an integral platform built over the Tau network and will serve as the primary economy that'll take full advantage of Tau's advanced features.
Agoras itself is comprised of 3 distinct parts:
- Automated Knowledge Economy.
- Computational Resource Market.
Advanced Currency with Derivatives Features.
It's a cryptocurrency that is powered with the Tau technology and so it is controlled solely and effectively by its users. It also facilitates, for the first time, a knowledge market, featuring knowledge-cash transactions. It will also support a computational resources market and a derivatives market allowing advanced monetary features, for example: the ability to get risk-free interest without printing new coins.
For now the token only marks holdings in the future Agoras coin, when it’ll be ready. The Agoras tokens and coins will be the currency of very new and very big economies, as big as the economical value of knowledge and of computational resources.
Agoras.Live is an open market where users can trade knowledge with one another.
Tau itself has no token much in the same way as the internet, as a piece of technology, has no need for a token. However, the best way to invest in this project is by purchasing Agoras tokens, which will be the primary currency of the marketplace to be built over Tau. Currently, these tokens are in the form of an Omni Asset based on the Bitcoin blockchain.
Agoras is actively trading on the following exchanges:
You may hold your Agoras in your omni wallet, or in any Bitcoin address to which you possess the private key such as a paper wallet. If you use the latter method and wish to send Agoras out, you'll first have to import your private key to Omni Wallet
Please refer to our How to Store Agoras tutorial.
Check out Tau.guide's Agoras distribution graph
There are a total of 42 million Agoras tokens in existence representing 100% of future circulating supply.
Ohad Asor is only reserving 3% for himself and his team, which means 97% will eventually be sold.
To date, about 30 million [~71%] have been sold over the last 5 years. Ohad has suspended direct sales until project development progresses further along.
Agoras represents one of the fairest fund raising and distributions of tokens in the crypto space.
There will be a Future Split of Agoras Tokens:
The split will not affect your holdings or funds. Post split, the market capitalization of Agoras will remain the same, but the price per token will change proportionally to the split ratio. For example, if the price of 1 IDNI Agoras is $50, with a total of 42 million tokens the market capitalization will be $2.1 billion. Assuming you hold 1 IDNI Agoras (you have $50), after the split, you will get 2000 Agoras tokens worth $0.025 each. Your holding will remain the same (2000*$0.025 = $50) and Agoras market capitalization will remain the same (84 billion * 0.025 = $2.1 billion).
The split is just technical, to support micro transactions over Agoras. It will not affect your holdings in terms of percents from the total supply.
Up to a 15% bonus will be distributed to Agoras holders who didn't move their tokens after August 1, 2017.
There are two options:
If your tokens have been locked (there are ~12 million locked tokens), you have already received the 15% discount, as appears on your personal address.
If you decided not to lock your tokens, you will get up to 15%, depending on the time in which you didn't move your tokens (by using a formula to calculate the effective rate of your bonus). For example, assuming you moved your tokens after 2 months and the holding period* was 20 months, you will get an effective bonus of 1.4074%, according to the following formula:
(1+15%)^(2/20)-1 = 1.4074%
*holding period = time from August 1, 2017 to the bonus distribution
Two answers posted by Ohad on BTT with regards to the bonus:
See Development progress on our Tau-chain Project Roadmap Tau progress can be generally defined by the following milestones:
- TML (Tau Meta Language) and Initial Network
- Collaborative Discussions Platform (alpha)
- Automated Code Synthesis of Programs (beta)
- The Tau Blockchain Network
- Agoras.Live Platform: A decentralised service open market where users can trade knowledge with one another.
- TML (Tau Meta Language): A programming language that describes other languages as there isn't a universal language that's best for all purposes. Self definition, Futamura's Projections and Internet of Languages - The latter allows languages to coexist, but we leave this until later to focus on the next milestone:
- Alpha Discussion Platform: Scaling large discussion and consensus detection.
- Beta: Users discussing requirements of software and the system converts those requirements into code, allowing a collaborative process of creating new software.
- Tau: Applying the Beta process onto Tau itself. Decentralized real time self amendment.
- Agoras: Smart currency (eg risk free interest without printing new money), knowledge and computational resource market.
Read more about the Tau-chain Developers Team
Ohad Asor is an accomplished mathematician, programmer, computer scientist and logician. Ohad went to university at the age of 13, and is regarded by many as a true genius even among prodigies. He has devoted almost all his spare time to rigorous academic studies, and as a result, has developed extensive knowledge that few experts could match.
Ohad has over 30 years of experience in programming (don't worry he's not that old, only 37). Tau's design is the culmination of years of research by Ohad, particularly in the areas of complexity theory, linear algebra, logic and social choice theory. It represents the seamless combination of the cutting edge of all these fields.
The Tauchain github repository is here https://github.com/IDNI
For the ability to soundly and collaboratively reach decisions that affect the whole system, we came up with "The Three Laws of Laws", which are three natural requirements from any language of law (of a country, or of an organisation, or the code of a p2p network):
- We require the question "is X legal" to always be answered in finite time, for any X. In other words, we require this question to be decidable.
- The language has to allow self reference, as the law typically refers to "the law", especially when it comes to laws of changing the laws. (for more details, see the article "The Art of Self-Reference" http://www.idni.org/blog/art-of-self-ref )
- Third and minor requirement is the ability to delete laws, for example in case we want to make a new law which contradicts and old law.
The first two requirements can very rarely come together. It turns out that TML satisfies not only the requirements from a meta-language, but also those three laws of laws.
Tau is therefore meant to be specialized to a very specific logical framework, that which satisfies those requirements. Such a framework is known in the fields of Descriptive Complexity and Finite Model Theory as FO[PFP].
Is it possible for another more established project to steal Tauchain's code as it's open source? Do we have steps to prevent this?
Ohad: Generally speaking, stealing code to compete in the same market is not a successful business strategy as you're always a few steps behind. Additionally, you can only steal what's visible so far as opposed to the total vision which is not yet all coded.
The design of Tau allows it's own code to update due to consensus of countless opinions of it's users in real time his allows each successive block to update itself based on the rules of the previous block automatically, bringing us the first true form of scalable governance.
Ohad: Second Order Logic will allow the user to express far more than they would with First Order Logic, even though TML is equipped with First Order Logic and recursion is in theory even more expressive than Second Order. However, this is mostly theoretical and doesn't provide many practical benefits, so Second Order Logic is important.
Without Second Order Logic you can define the relations between objects which is the ontological approach to encoding knowledge, but these relations are required to be declared very explicitly. Under Second Order Logic, we can give implicit conditions of what this relationship ought to be and by that declare a broader class of relations.
An example from Douglas Miles: Bob loves Sally and Sally loves Bob. We can say that while their feelings towards each other are not identical, they do intersect with something we call love. So in the language of Second Order Logic we can say that there exists some relation which is the feeling from Bob to Sally and another relation which is the feeling from Sally to Bob and the intersection of those relations is contained in our concept of love.
So you have a higher level of abstraction with Second Order Logic, and I've only described the first of infinite levels known as the polynomial hierarchy. It relates to how many times you alternate between ForAll and ThereExists. The examples I gave have 0 alternations. With more alternations you get an infinite hierarchy of expressiveness and complexity and of course it'll support arbitrary quantifiable notion.
How susceptible is Tau from being compromised by falsified data and is this something we have a solution for or is it the responsibility of the users?
Ohad: I don't anticipate the risk of this to be high as there's no notion of 'truth' in the network. If someone wants to believe 1+1=3, they can write so. No one can prevent them from doing so and very few will agree with them. It will not affect anyone else as it's only your own opinion.
If people post statements you find to be false, unfounded or misleading, you can simply disagree with it. There is no inherent truth in the system, merely opinions.
In many ways. Let me give a non practical solution to every problem in the world: Just take the 1 million smartest people to have a discussion and they're likely solve the problem. In practice this doesn't work because a discussion of a million people is impossible to conduct. But this is possible with Tau. We can have a discussion between millions of people where the information doesn't get lost in the noise, where each valuable information retains its place because the machine will draw an opinion map and calculate who agrees with whom, who disagrees with whom which will allow large scale collaborative decision making.
The social implications are immense where the masses can reach democratic decisions together without the need of intermediary representatives.
Machine comprehensible languages will become increasingly easier and more accessible for new users.
Tau will also allow the masses to propose what to vote over rather than just have the ability to vote. Under Agoras we'll have a fairer economy that's controlled by the people. Efficiency of markets is defined by economists by the speed at which information propagates. The faster, the less information asymmetry and thus the fairer the market. And because information propagates orders of magnitudes faster, it is much fairer.
10 years from now, I see the Agoras' knowledge market allowing more incentives for people to create and share knowledge. There will exist pure knowledge to cash transactions, and it may be possible that all the knowledge in the world is more valuable than all the real estate in the world. This represents the scale of the value of our network. Agoras gives a direct valuation of knowledge.
Ultimately Tau is designed to be used by everyone. However, at the beginning of Alpha, before the Internet of Languages, the only language will be TML.
TML is not a Knowledge Representation Language and therefore is not convenient for expressing knowledge. Over time, through the Internet of Languages, users will be able to define more accessible languages including natural language processing which over time will provide a better user experience for everyday people.
Yes, though it's not limited to security. Tau allows you to specify what you want to program to do, and the Tau will automatically work out how it's done for you. In essence you need to define the security measures for your program and Tau will synthesize a secure program for you.
Another point is that many security questions revolve around the intended or unintended consequences of code: generally unintended consequences can be seen as a security risk. Under Tau, it's possible to be certain of the consequences of code, provided that you use a decidable language over which the machine can reason, subject to physical limitations of computational power.
They're barely comparable any more. The Old Tau mainly relied on reasoning over code by using decidable languages, which Ethereum doesn't have as they opted for Turing Complete smart contracts. That way, smart contracts under Old Tau can only lead to intended consequences.
Tau design has changed a lot since then to focus on scaling discussion, collaborative decision making and automatic code production based on those decisions. It is no longer something that's similar to Ethereum in any meaningful way.
Read more about The New Tau.
As described in the 3 laws of laws, we require rules over the network to be written in a decidable language. Tezos doesn't support decidability. It is Turing complete. Furthermore, Tezos's social-choice mechanism is based on voting, and voting cannot fairly scale.
Read more From Izar Flis's Tau vs Tezos Article
Ohad: There's a big difference: Wolfram is a tool to discover tools and to represent facts, mathematical and physical facts, while the concept of truth is an alien photo.
In Tau there is no truth, only opinions. It is first and foremost a social product, which enhances communication between people by allowing them to collaboratively reach decisions.
Wolfram has nothing to do with collaborative decision making.
Cyc intends to formalize common sense knowledge. This is not a direct goal of Tau. The direct goal of Tau is to scale discussions. The knowledge that matters for a certain discussion is the knowledge that appears within that discussion.
Tau is more centered around opinion than truth. Everything over Tau is an opinion to which you can agree or disagree. Cyc, as far as I understand, is not about helping large groups of people understand each other. It's about a machine accruing knowledge about human life.
That being said, while it took 30 years for Cyc to build their knowledge base, they had relatively few contributors. Tau will have millions of people taking part in discussions and knowledge will accrue many orders of magnitudes faster. Furthermore, the best way to formalize knowledge is through the process of discussion which Tau facilitates, rather than have it dictated into the system like in Cyc.
TML supports the 3 laws of laws:
- Self reference
- Deletion - which can be seen as a form of negation. However, TML also supports negation, not only deletion. I'm referring to TML as it is right now which is pure PFP, or even less, it's PDatalog in the literature such as the book 'Finite Model Theory' by Ebbinghaus and Flum.
To demonstrate, lets start with Decidability: which is saying all TML programs always halt. By nature, this isn't something you can demonstrate by example, but there is an explanation in TML's Github readme
For Self reference, negation deletion, you can see putting a negating operator on bodies, as well as deletion. For self reference, you can see TML doesn't restrict you from writing recursive predicates. So you can see you can write programs that refer to themselves.
Anyone who can spare a few minutes can test them out directly right now using the** IRC bot, and of course **TML itself, which the bot uses. It is open source.
Ohad: If I had any specific time frame in my mind, I wouldn't keep it from anyone. I simply don't know. I don't want to over hype this, but once we have a functioning collaborative development platform, then things can happen very fast, very theoretically speaking, to build Tau or Agoras or many other things, 10,000 devs can do it overnight once the collaborative system functions. : )
We just need a critical mass of developers and things can accelerate greatly long before the entire roadmap is finished.
The Tau-chain & Agoras Development Roadmap shows current progress.
You can read more about TML in our Tutorials section:
For example: If Bitcoin was hosted on Tau, how would they determine the BTC blocksize? Would it still result in forks?
Ohad: Forks are a consequence when we reach a point where disagreements cannot be resolved. Discussions are the best way to resolve disagreements.
Ohad: Yes, all logical systems have limitations. Most questions in the universe are too difficult to be practically solvable. But most problems in practice are likely solvable. Most importantly, we as humans don't have any more advantage over what's mathematically possible. The computer will have limitations, but it will certainly do better than us.